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ŁAMANIE PRAW CZŁOWIEKA PODCZAS MIGRACJI LUDNOŚCI U SCHYŁKU I PO II WOJNIE ŚWIATOWEJ W EUROPIE ŚRODKOWEJ

ŁAMANIE PRAW CZŁOWIEKA PODCZAS MIGRACJI LUDNOŚCI U SCHYŁKU I PO II WOJNIE ŚWIATOWEJ W EUROPIE ŚRODKOWEJ

Wojciech M. Hrynicki, Tomasz Greif
Wyższa Szkoła Bezpieczeństwa Publicznego i Indywidualnego „Apeiron” w Krakowie

1. Objective
The objective of the article is to recall the enormity of human suffering related to the forcible relocation of population at the close of and after World War II in Central Europe. The tragedy of World War II did not end with the signing of peace treaties. On the contrary, for many people it was the beginning of flight, exile,
and, finally, forcible relocation. The victors were dealing without mercy not only with the defeated but also with the allies and own citizens, violating the regulations of international treaties. Today we should remember about those horrible events, which only recently have started to be discussed loudly so that the same mistakes leading
to the suffering and death of many human beings are not made in the future.
2. Introduction
The great conferences which crowned World War II (Tehran, Yalta, Potsdam) as well as the Atlantic Charter and the Charter of the United Nations pulled the world, and Europe in particular, our of the nightmare
of destruction and death, and, all the same, they also served as a guarantee that the spoils of war would be divided between the victors. However, the above-mentioned treaties did not divide only territories but, particularly, people, giving rise to the tragedy of flight, exile and forcible relocation. The tragedies took place especially in Central Europe and they affected both the invaders and the victims. The victims sometimes turned into invaders,
and the invaders into victims. The atrocities of flight, exile and forcible relocation were suffered by Jews, for whom World War II constituted the greatest tragedy ever, as well as by the Poles, Germans, Hungarians, Ukrainians, Belarussians, Czechs, Slovaks, Lithuanians, Russians and representatives of other nations. The beautiful slogans of the Atlantic Charter and the Charter of the United Nations became for those fleeing, exiled and forcibly relocated only empty watchwords, of which most of them did not even hear during the tragedy.

3. Methodology
The authors identify the enormity of flight, exile and forcible relocation of people at the close of and after World War II, and try to raise the awareness of the need to remember about it and draw conclusions for the future. The adopted comparative historical method allows for direct needs analysis concerning the guarantee of basic human needs in the face of the horrors of war and actions taken directly after the war.
4. Conclusions
The authors prove that, irrespective of victory in a war, securing people against national or ethnic persecution when the war has come to an end should be a matter of overriding importance for the victors.
The victory does not entitle the victors to treat people like objects, even if they also were accomplices to the tragedy of war. Great wars are fought between states, particularly between the biggest ones, and it is the unarmed, innocent people who suffer, even though they are not responsible for their outbreak and all the harm. The experience
of World War II should make people aware of the threat of suffering and death in the face of post-war division of territorial spoils.

Keywords
human rights, World War II, flight, exile, forcible relocation
DOI 10.24356/KB/24/3